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Principles of rotary flight

The Main Rotor :
The lifting force is produced by the rotors.
As they spin they cut into the air and produce lift.
Each blade produces an equal share of the lifting force.

Spinning the rotor against the air causes lift, allowing the helicopter to rise vertically or hover.

Tilting the spinning rotor will cause flight in the direction of the tilt.

The Tail Rotor :
The tail rotor is very important. If you spin a rotor using an engine, the rotor will rotate, but the engine and the helicopter will try to rotate in the opposite direction.

This is called

The tail rotor is used like a small propeller, to pull against torque reaction and hold the helicopter straight.

By applying more or less pitch (angle) to the tail rotor blades it can be used to make the helicopter turn left or right, becoming a rudder. The tail rotor is connected to the main rotor through a gearbox.
When using the tail rotor trying to compensate the torque, the result is an excess of force in the direction for which the tail rotor is meant to compensate, which will tend to make the helicopter drift sideways. Pilots tend to compensate by applying a little cyclic pitch, but designers also help the situation by setting up the control rigging to compensate. The result is that many helicopters tend to lean to one side in the hover and often touch down consistently on one wheel first. On the other hand if you observe a hovering helicopter head-on you will often note that the rotor is slightly tilted. All this is a manifestation of the drift phenomenon. The engine(s) simply drive the rotors and did not assist directly with forward flight (like they would with a plane). There is a very small amount of thrust that comes from engine exhaust, but it is so small that it does not effect flight performance.

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james pratt ( gardner mass )
My idea of how things work was correct this comfirms this and made me alot calmer i am really into this now.This realy is helpfull thankyou

suraj ( india )
that was a wonderful theory ,good phrases & very easy to understand about the helicopters

mario Maldonado ( Incline Village Nv )
Flying an helicopter is my dream! I want to express my appreciation to all of you who make possible this priceless teachings. Gracias mil, Mario

Martin Daniels ( Zambia )
Excellent explications keep it up guys

Sunday Oghenemaga Famous ( Nigeria )
This is a detailed and comprehensive theory. I have learnt alot from it

saugat sigdel ( nepal )
i was very curious know how helicopter and i was trying to find it in net but i was unsucessful . Now i have find that in this site. Thank you.

shahnoor ( India )
something was missing when i use other site .but this is a perfect theory and sufficient.

shanavas ( india )
simlple language easy to understand

emmanuel absalom mwakasumi ( tanzania )
thanks,its more than answer to my question.

zeeshan asghar ( pakistan )
I learned a lot specially about forward flight....

Longwe Richard ( Malawi )
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Fakorede Solomon Oguns ( Nigeria )
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Oliver ( UK )
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J.Chiaga ( Starlite Aviation )
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David Alec Materu ( Tanzania )
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Elvis daniel ( Nigeria )
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tunde mobayo ( nigeria )
Thanks, your explanation is simple and educative

Kimutai Kirui G. ( Bomet, Kenya. )
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Abdullahi Ahmed ( Beledweyne, Somalia )
Thank you for the easy explanation, this pushes forward my flying dreams.

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