Known to the French forces as Operation Mousquetaire. The third Musketeer were the Israelis, whose assault into Sinai was conducted under Operation Kadesh.
In summer 1956, the Suez Canal had been nationalised by the Egyptian Government, seizing British and French assets in the Canal Zone and threatening the future viability of the route to shorten passage to the Gulf and the Far East. In addition to intense diplomatic activity, a French fleet was assembled at Toulon and the British carrier HMS Bulwark (R08) embarked her Sea Hawks, while HMS Ocean (R68) and HMS Theseus (R64) - which had only recently been fitted out as anciliary troopships - set out with 16 Parachute Brigade embarked, to join HMS Eagle (R05) in the Mediterranean, by early August. Towards the end of August, Ocean and Theseus returned to the UK for rapid refit and were replaced on station by HMS Albion (R09) with her Sea Hawks and Sea Venoms. Ocean was updated with modern hospital and operating theatre facilities and both her and Theseus were modified for Helicopter operations.
On 30 Sep Ocean (with 845 Naval Air Squadron embarked) and Theseus (with the JEHU embarked) put to sea to work up. On 14 Oct, 845 Squadron transferred to Theseus and sailed for Malta, while Ocean embarked the JEHU and set out on 19 Oct. Leaving Malta on the night of 29 Oct 1956 (ostensibly for a training exercise Operation Boathook), the British naval task force joined loosely with French units, including the carriers Arromanches & La Fayette (both with a SAR flight of 2x HUP-2s of 23S), in the Mediterranean and proceeded towards Egypt and the Suez Canal.
The RAF and the A de l A had concentrated units at Akrotiri, Nicosia & Tymbou on Cyprus. The main Royal Naval punch was provided at first light on 1 Nov by the fixed wing aircraft carriers Albion, Bulwark and Eagle to the west of Longitude 32, whilst the RAF were assigned to the east. F-84s of the Armée de lAir provided top cover. During an attack on the Gamil bridge later that day, a Wyvern was shot down and its pilot was rescued from the sea by HMS Eagle SAR Helicopter Flight. On 2 Nov an aviator from 15F was rescued by a HUP-2, after his Corsair went over the side of La Fayette during recovery. On 3 Nov Albion withdrew to refuel, whilst Eagle withdrew on 4 Nov to repair its starboard catapult, refuel and to re-equip with aircraft flown in from El Adem. GH/3 of the ALAT was also active with its Bell 47 at Gamil, towards the very end of the operation
Although the bulk of the activity was along the Mediterranean, the Israelis swept through the Sinai on 29 Oct and it was this that enabled the British and French to intervene to separate the belligerents. There was at least one Naval Engagement in the Red Sea, where HMS Northumberland sank the Egyptian frigate Domiat on 31 Oct.
Following a drop of 3 PARA and 16 Parachute Brigade (Operation Cordage) on the airfield at Gamil and a conventional seaborne landing (Operation Telescope), the Whirlwinds of 845 Squadron and the Whirlwinds and Sycamores of the Joint Helicopter Unit landed 500 troops from 45 Royal Marine Commando in Port Said early on 6 Nov 1956. The successful French assault by the 2eme Regiment de Parachutistes Coloniaux was to be directed at Port Faud on the east bank but was changed to the bridges at Raswa, further south. Under intense political pressure, particularly from the USA, a ceasefire was called late that night.
During the operation in the Mediterranean, ships from the US 6th Fleet were shadowing movements, in particular USS Salem, USS Antietam, USS Coral Sea, USS Forrestal and USS Randolph. Certainly they were there to emphasise US resolve in gaining a UN-backed cease-fire; to this day there are some in the UK who are not sure whether that fleet was providing covert protection to the Musketeer force, or whether there was a plan to intervene on behalf of Egypt.
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|Dates||Rotary Wing Aircraft Unit||Models|
|Escadrille 23S Aéronautique Navale||Alouette II|
HUP-2 / UH-25B Retriever
|18 Squadron Royal Air Force|
|27 Squadron Royal Air Force|
|84 Squadron Royal Air Force||Type 171 Sycamore|
|810 Squadron Fleet Air Arm|
|845 Squadron Fleet Air Arm||Whirlwind|
|846 Squadron Fleet Air Arm|
|849 Squadron Fleet Air Arm|
|Joint Experimental Helicopter Unit Royal Air Force||Whirlwind|
Type 171 Sycamore
Some of the units could be operating fixed wing aircraft at the time, check every unit for details
|Sikorsky HO4S-3||WV199 WV203 WV204 WV205 WV220 WV221 WV223 WV224|
|Westland Whirlwind HAR.3||XG581 XG587 XJ399 XJ400|
|Westland Whirlwind HAR.2||XJ764 XJ765 XK968 XK969 XK970 XK986|
|Bristol Sycamore 4||XG500 XG502 XG507 XG515 XG523 XG548|
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|Aircraft Carrier||La Fayette class||R96 La Fayette,|
|Aircraft Carrier||Colossus class||R64 HMS Theseus, R68 HMS Ocean, R95 Arromanches,|
|Aircraft Carrier||Modified Centaur class||R07 HMS Albion, R08 HMS Bulwark,|
|Aircraft Carrier||Audacious class||R05 HMS Eagle,|
|Helicopter Carrier||Lofoten class||K07 HMS Lofoten,|
|Support Ship||Canadian Fort class||A229 RFA Fort Duquesne,|
|Support Ship||Retainer class||A329 RFA Retainer,|